Social Sciences and Humanity Studies Academic Blog

Nangi and Migration: Impact and Implications

Posted in My life by Shekhar on March 8, 2013

Ananda Raj Devkota

Basudev Poudel

Kamal Prasad Khanal

Shekhar KC

General

Trend of migration has been an inherent feature of Nangi village. While the families of persons employed in foreign military services widely migrated to urban areas in the past to meet their living standards, in recent times, engagement in foreign employment has been the prominent feature of migration. Most of the households have sent their members to work as wage laborers in countries of the Gulf and Malaysia.

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Limited agricultural productivity and scarcity of employment opportunities in the village have prompted migration of people in search of foreign employment. In general, migration can be said to have beneficial impacts in the lives of the people at Nangi and have been found to secure food security, financial security, employment security, household security and education and health for the villagers. Had the migration been limited, most of the households would have faced insecurity of livelihoods.

Food Security

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People’s migration has resulted in shortage of labor as well the amount of land is being barren in the village that has adverse impact on the productivity and increased dependency on the remittance income to buy other food items from the nearby market of Beni and Pokhara. Remitted income coming in the family has resulted in different consumption pattern among villagers. To give example Ex-British or ex-Indian army were found to be indulging in alcohol consumption and have less concern towards investment in local agricultural production while gulf-countries migrants were more spending in food and education. However the migration has both positive and negative impact on the people’s livelihood including food security aspect.

Education and health

Migration seems to have positive iImageImagempact on the education level of the villagers in many ways. First the contribution of ex-migrants for founding the base of education in the village and then secondly the villagers are spending the remitted income to educate their children either in village (greater in number) and or in nearby cities like Pokhara and Beni (very few). The absence of husbands or sons in the family tends to have effect on the performance and health of the children too.

The health of the migrants was not found to be good neither their family members in the village were having motivations to visit the health posts frequently. The process of migration has however encourage the households to consume nutritious food items and incase they face some big health emergencies, they were found to be able to cope with that only with the remitted income.

Financial security

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Most of the migrants’ families had access to credit through informal sectors like local self-help groups, relatives and rich neighbors while few have access to banks (only ex-Gurkhas and ex-Indian army families). All Migrants were perceiving some degree of financial security but depending upon which countries they had gone. Ex-Indian or British Military officers were enjoying handsome income, savings and expanding their properties even outside Nangi village in nearby cities while migrants of gulf countries were more focused on income generating activities and were found to have relatively less income. In general, income level of migrants were responsible for access to banks and cooperatives

Employment Security

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Besides agriculture, foreign employment has been serving as the major economic backbone of the village and remittance has played a significant role in securing basic needs of the villagers. It can be inferred that migration (foreign employment) is a crucial factor for providing employment as well as income opportunities for households of the village. Never-the-less many issues still concern foreign employment as a long term option for securing employment opportunities for the village population. Lack of education and skills is the major concern for those people perusing employment abroad. While most are working as unskilled wage laborers abroad, they earn less and have fewer opportunities for saving and investment as most of their income is spent on covering household expenses, repaying loans and education of children. Further, there are no opportunities to exercise their learned skills and implement them on local enterprises. Lack of entrepreneurial skills further drive them towards vicious circle of searching for employment abroad. Thus programs are needed to enhance skills of workers who opt for foreign employment. Similarly, conducive environment must be created to generate local jobs, impart entrepreneurial skills, and provision of credit facilities.

Household Security

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Further, migration have helped secure household condition of the village primarily through improved financial status, access to health and education and increased participation of women in social activities. Never-the-less, prolonged absence of family members could result in family tensions and break up in the long run. However, heterogeneous community comprised of closely related kins and social relations has provided a safety net for family integrity and social cohesion.

(Note: The detail portion of this report can be asked from kushekharkc@gmail.com)

PERSONAL REFLECTIONS

The most memorable part of the 2 week rural internship was the painstaking hardship we faced during data collection throughout the day and the sharing of our experience in pleasant manner in the evening when we all used to gather in a camp-fire site and enjoy our achievements on the day. I personally felt the growth in my patience and the adaptation capacity to the changing environment. I realized how much important is it to know the basic environment and way of local life of the village or study area when a researcher or any student is visiting with academic purpose. This experience and opportunity has equipped me with skills and knowledge to conduct such internship for my coming generations. 

Shekhar KC, Migration and Financial security, Roll no: 9, MDEVS -2012 Batch

My internship stay in Nangi carried fully an academic purpose but I got to widen my horizon of understanding towards general people in many ways. During interviewing and focus group discussion, I was well informed about their high dependency on remittance and their desire to live a luxurious life in coming days. That made me realize how vulnerable the village people were in long term. I saw the sustainability of remittance economy as the potential sector to conduct research in coming days.

– Kamal Prasad Khanal, Migration and Health + Migration and Education, Roll no: 10, MDEVS -2012 Batch

Study for the internship at Nangi was a new experience for me and has provided me an opportunity to learn on qualitative research and on quick assessment of rural livelihoods. One of the achievements of this internship was that within short time and limited resource persons, we were able to collect all necessary data required for preparing this report.

Under the thematic topic of migration, I made special emphasis on general migration trend of the village, and impact of migration on employment and household security. Similar to the national migration pattern, Nangi village was also seeing migration of significant number of youths for foreign employment. Such migration has definitely helped ease the pressure on agriculture and increasing unemployment in the village and provided income opportunities to the households. Remitted income in the one hand has helped gain household security through increased access to food, education and health, and on the other hand been a cause for family dispute and straining of relations. Providing skills trainings and encouraging entrepreneurial activities in the village would provide better employment opportunities abroad and in the village.

Ananda Raj Devkota

General Migration Trend + Employment Security

+ Household Security

MDevS 2012

 Appendix 1: FGD Questions

FGD and Key informant questionnaire / checklist

  1. 1.      Migration information

1.1.   During certain times of the year, do any people in this community temporarily leave to look for work elsewhere?  

1.2.   At which time of the year do they normally migrate?

1.3.   Where do most of them go?

1.4.   What age group of the people who find seasonal work outside the community?

1.5.   What type of work do they look for during these times of the year?

1.6.   Since, 2006 have more people moved into your community, or have there been more people that moved away?

1.7.   What would be the trend of migration in future years?

1.8.   What do people do on return from abroad? Or is doing (if someone has already returned)? (This question may answer the skill transfer theory of migration)

1.9.   How has remittance affected food security and nutrition status of households?.

1.10.                    Why do you think people spend remitted amount in real estate or other unproductive assets?

1.11.                    Are additional laborers hired for agriculture purpose?

1.12.                    Why are they hired?

1.13.                    From where do the laborers come from?

1.14.                    What kind of agriculture are they hired for?

1.15.                    Has they brought any changes in pattern of agriculture?

  1. 2.      Migration and Food security

2.1.   How much money they invest for food?

2.2.   How has migration affected household and political, security?

2.3.   How far they have to go to buy food items?

2.4.   Storage facilities for food

2.5.   Subsidized food items through governmental or any other institutional arrangements? (e.g. Nepal food corporations)

2.6.   How much do you skip you mean per week?

2.7.    How much land do you have for cultivation?

2.8.   – Food sufficiency level before and after migration of family member

2.9.   – change in nutrition level (malnutrition, lower weight)

2.10.                    – Labor sufficiency in agricultural farm. Are the members of family are enough for agriculture

2.11.                    Do you hire? How do you fund extra labor? What is the problem that made hire additional labor? Is there any impact of hiring extra labor on productivity?

2.12.                     Has the fooding habit changed due to migration or increased remittance?

2.13.                     How far is the food market? Does market sufficiently supplies food market?

2.14.                     Have people left to work in field due to remittance?

  1. 3.      Migration and Financial Security

Family income and its major sources

3.1.   Expenditure patterns

3.1.1.      food

3.1.2.      Non-food expenses

  1. Income Sources

4.1.   Agricultural

4.2.   Non Agricultural

4.3.   Remittances

4.4.   What are the income sources

4.4.1.      Agriculture

4.4.2.      Non-agricultural sector

4.4.3.      Remittances

4.6 How much income do you earn from farming?

      Rice _______ Maize______ Wheat Vegetable _______ Fruit________

4.5.   Does the family have access to cooperatives or banks or any financial group or institutions?

4.6.   Do any of your family members have returns on savings or investments?

4.7.   Do any of your family members have life insurance?

4.8.   Do any of you family member receive pensions or any government payments? How much per year (Rs/year)

4.9.   Do you have debt? For how many year? How much?

4.9.1.      years——–

4.9.2.      amount———-

4.10.                    Have you experiences any financial crunch or shock in past five year? How many times?

4.11.                    Do you have remittances as a source of income ?

4.12.                    What is the status of remittance remitted by migrants?

4.13.                    What is remitted amount usually used for?

4.14.                    Has the food consumption habit changed before and after migration? Increased consumption of Nutritious food (Change in fooding habit/ what do they consume now and what they used to consume earlier?)

4.15.                    Do people invest remittance in agriculture improvement or businesses investment?

4.16.                    Do people save remitted income?

4.16.1.1.        (If yes) On what type of business do people invested remitted income in?

  1. 5.      Education

5.1.   Effect of education in migration

5.1.1.      Has education played role in migration of people?

5.1.2.      Where do educated youths migrate most and for what reason?

5.1.3.      What kind of job they do abroad? Relate this with the education level of migrants.

5.2.   Effect of Migration in Education

5.2.1.      Is household income sufficient to fund education of children/member of the household? Has migration/remittance contributed as a source to fund education expenses? Increased access/financing education

5.2.2.      Have the performance of the students changed in the school (relate with the marks)?

5.2.3.      Has the school attendance changed in last five years? How? What about the attendance of the children from migrant’s family?

5.2.4.      Is there any role of migration in affecting the literacy rate of women? How?

5.2.5.      Has the attitude of male towards female in the family changed with the migration (relate with education)?

5.2.6.      Where do the migrant send their children for study? In village school or outside? Why?

5.2.7.      If children are sent to other places for study purpose (financed by the remittance), what are the chances of them settling there? What is the existing scenario?

5.2.8.      What is the impact of pursuing education outside on the village?

  1. 6.       Health

6.1.    What is the role of migration in improving the health of local people?

6.2.   Is household income sufficient to fund education of children/member of the household? Has migration/remittance contributed as a source to fund education expenses? Increased access/financing better health services

6.3.   Do the migrant provide financial support to local health post/centers (How has been those support utilized?)

6.4.   Has the child/ maternal mortality reduced in migrants’ family? Is there any role of migration? Have the birth weights of infants in migrant’s family improved? How?

6.5.   Increased sexually transmittable diseases (if migrant carrying from outside)

6.6.   Disseminating health related knowledge acquired from host country/place by the migrant

6.7.   Do you have latrine facilities? What type of latrine? When was it build? How did you fund?

6.8.   Has the frequency of diarrhea, fever, stomachache before and after the migration changed? If yes, what do you think are the reason? What do you do to treat that disease?

6.9.   What kind of other diseases have the family suffered from in past one year? What has been done to cure? How are those expenses funded?

 

  1. 7.      Employment security

7.1.   Do you think you have employment opportunities in the village?

7.2.   What are the various factors that you think is important to ensure you employment?

7.3.   Has migration resulted in lesser economic activity and ultimately affecting local employment opportunities?

7.4.   Have the migrants been engaged in long term employment opportunities or prefer seasonal migration for employment?

7.5.   Do people who return from abroad try to implement their skills and experiences in creation of employment and business??

7.6.   What could be done to encourage returnees to invest their skills locally?

7.7.   Would creation of local employment opportunities reverse the migration trend?

  1. 8.      Household security

8.1.   How has family structure been affected by migration?

8.2.   What are the affects of increased migration of male members to:
– women
– children
– elderly

8.3.   Has the increased migration of youth affected overall security of community?

8.4.   Do elderly feel insecure and dejected due to prolonged absence of their children?

8.5.   Has threats of theft increased with increasing remittance and migration?

8.6.   During the post-peace period since 2006 has the community life been normalized?

8.7.   How has migration affected social relationships and community bond?

Appendix 2: Research Participants

FGD 1:

Date: January 20, 2012

Location: Mandali, Nangi

Participants

Respondents

Gender

Age

Address

Migrants relation

Destination

Type of work

Tiki Maya Tiluja

Female

47

Nangi-1

Son

Korea since 8 month

Wielding

Khim Maya Sherpanja

Female

38

Nangi-1

Husband

Saudi Arab since 2 years

Wielding

Kesh Maya Gorbuja

Female

38

Nangi-2

Husband

Dubai

Labor

Dil Maya Tiluza

Female

50

Nangi-2

Husband and son

 

Labor

Aimati Pun

Female

52

Nangi-1

2 sons

Honkong (since 4 years) and Saudi Arab (since 2 years)

Labor

Dil Bahadur Tiliza, Former ward Chairman, Ex-Indian army

Male

50

Nangi-1

Son

Japan since 3 year

Student in self-financed

FGD 2

Date: January 20, 2013

Location: HSHS computer lab, Nangi

FGD Participants

Respondents

Gender

Age

Address

Migrants relation

Destination

Type of work

Ram Maya Pun, community lodge committee members

Female

36 years

Nangi-1

Husband of under sic

Dubai since 2 years

Store keeper

Sukh Maya Pun, ban samiti, yak committee

Female

38

Nangi-2

Husband

Malaysia since 11 years

 

Amar Bahadur Pun, former ward chair, school management committee

male

67

Nangi-2

4 sons, Indian army, France as a student visa study French language

France

Labor

Maya Purja

Female

29

Nangi-2

Husband since  years

Qatar, Malaysia, Dubai

construction

Om Kumari Pun

Female

Thirty two

Nangi-1

Husband

Qatar since 2 years

Labor

Mr Kisan Pun, teacher

male

40

Nangi-1

Brothers, sisters, mother

UK

 

FGD 3

Date: January 24, 2013

Location: Ramche, Deurali lower Secondary School (DLSS), Myagdi

FGD Participants

1. Abir Pun, 31 years, Ramche-8, Kafaldada, (DLSS) English teacher since 2059 BS, Married: 9847702319

2. Neelam Purja, 21 years, Ramche-3, (DLSS) Teaching all subjects since last 2 years, Single: 9846381982

3. Devi Garbuja, 33 years, Ramche-3, (DLSS)Teaching all subjects since last 8 years, Single: 9847642462

4. Mr Umesh Garbuja, 23 years, Ramche-4, (DLSS) Teaching all kind of subjects since last 4 years, Single: 9847723663

 

INTERVIEW LIST

1)      Mrs Ram Maya Pun, 36, Community health worker,

2)      Mrs Dilmaya Pun, Community Health Worker, Ramche (9847758193)

3)      Ms Ganga Purja, Home stay owner, Ramche

4)      Mr Vyas Khas Bahadur Gorbuja, Chairman of School running committee

5)      Laxman Pun, 37 years, Poultry Farm owner, Nangi ( taken on January 24, 2013)

6)      Budhimaya Khoraja, 45 yrs, Ramche-1, (taken on January 24, 2013)

7)      Mr Mati Bahadur Pun,  (Nursery Baaje)

8)      Mr Kisan Pun, 40, English teacher, HSHS, Nangi

9)      Mr Om Prasad Pun, 60, ex-Indian Army officer, Bhanda, Nangi

10)  Mr Raman Pun, Principal, HSHS, Nangi, (taken on January 19, 2013)

11)  Mr Kisan Pun, English Teacher at HSHS, Nangi,(taken on January 19, 2013

12)  Mr Jhaman Thapa, Nangi, (taken on January 19, 2013

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