Social Sciences and Humanity Studies Academic Blog

Competition, Convergence and Symbiosis: Online Media

Posted in Global Media, Media by Shekhar on April 17, 2011

Lecture By: Asst. Prof Nirmala Mani Adhikary, KU

Date: April 15, 2011

(Big Note: Grammatical mistakes are not to be taken seriously in this note.)

The class was somewhat interactive i.e sir asked questions and students replied. Incase students didn’t address the question sir used to do it. How the advent of Online media has changed the concept of traditional Mass Communication? Interms of sender, only professional communicator had access to the medium but now anybody can disseminate the information or news.

In next class all students are supposed to bring the data regarding how many Nepalese’s has director, secondary or tertiary access to internet? Also in April 22, 2011 Friday, all students are supposed to come up with their presentation slide over their respective websites profile. The question goes like below:

Select any three website at least (one from Nepal; at least one a news portal; at least one in Nepali medium; at least one from USA; at least one owned by independent non-conglomerate non-crossholding owners). Then prepare profile of the websites. The profile must contain following information.

– website foundation

– objective

– types of content

– ownership

– sources of revenues: advertisement payment existing or not;

– legal status- registration, legal provisions for that kind of websites,

– organogram and staffing:

– mechanism for gate-keeping: what kind of moderation: whether there is editorial board;

– provision for feedback

– target audience:

– appraisal of the content

Students are supposed to present the profile of following websites on 22 April 2011.:

Apart from Assignment details, the following portion contains the lecture notes of Online media.

We discussed three concepts. First was competition among online and traditional mass medium. Second was the existence of online media as the convergence of traditional media content.

Interms of message how online media is different from traditional media? The information has become more personalized but earlier it used to be more formalized. For example certain segments, categorised content are preferred in Radio and TV stations but now a days the message might not be in particular format.Online content may not be decoded so easily as the messages of traditional media like print.

Regulation mechanism of Online media differs from place to place. In Nepal it should be registered in the Department of Information. Regulatory mechanism of Online media in Nepal Telecommunication Authority. NTA authorizes NTC, N-cell and other mobile services. But the regulatory mechanism may be difficult because the sender may be anonymous. Proxy sites may be there. Nirmal shared us that once when he was working in Insec online, he had to report on the blockage of, the then sites of Maoist. Sir, to view the site details, opened through which he had access to What are Mirror sites?(search in Google)

Discuss the Online media competition, convergence and symbiosis with examples? (this question may come in final exam in 10 marks).

Print media has other versions in todays digital age for example Print media-Newspapers; e-newspapers, Magazine; e-zines, Books; e-book

Broadcast media has other versions too like Radio: podcasting, TV-video-casting, Film-e-movies;, recording

lets focus on the difference between online books and e-books? Not all e-books are online books. Popular book website namely provides online-books. Once online-books are saved in the dextop they are e-book. All books should be converted into e-book before they are uploaded to web. Once they are available online, they are online- book. Again when we download it into dextop they are e-book which we can use even we are out of internet connection.

In case of podcasting, we don’t have any radio stations but sound-signals already converted into digital signals or information in audio format which can be accessed online.

Standardization: It is a important terminology in media. It’s the principle of producing the content in particular format, proceed further through particular mechanism and follow particular pattern of dissemination. How we differentiate opinion article and news from features is related with the concept of standardization. for details visit and see related article.

We are terming online-radio, online-television because the contents are based on the standardization followed by Radio and television. There are online-only-radio like radio Dobhan. But there may be radio content being disseminated with the presence of any such radio stations then that is podcasting. All those audio-visual content which are available online are podcasting.

Physically no radio but online audio content are broadcasted in real time referred to online-radio-only. Conventionally former two type of online radio content could be recognized as podcasting.

Online form of print media are E-newsletter and E-zine like E-book could be sold through online and also kindle. Kindle is something like i-pad which can read books.

OPAC: Its full form is “Online public access catalogue”. Here all the information regarding book stored in the library can be accessed. In Nepal OPAC is  available in National Library situated in Harihar Bhawan. They provide ISNN for journals and magazine. In the similar manner For books we use ISBN provided by TU Central library.

Film: They have online version. For example Slumdog Millionaire was planned to release through theatre and DVDs. Some sites like torrents can provide film online.

Now we have all conventional mass media converged into one form of media whether it is radio, television or print. And that is online media.

Competition: The issue of competition referred to competition for revenue, competition for audience and content. People might stop subscribing newspaper if they have access to newspaper online. In the context of US and British, decrease in subscribing newspaper has been seen due to advent of online  e-newspaper. Direct sales revenue and advertising sales revenue has decreased in certain places of the world but not in Nepal. Competition between print and online: Christian Science Monitor, Chicago Times got collapsed because audience shifted to online but advertiser are there. The profit seemed not be as per earlier. In Nepal, janastha weekly website charge for online news. In most of weeklies are available but in Janastha the case is different. is e-commerce site famous in Nepal nowadays.

symbiosis in Online media: Traditional media has their won existence but they existing in symbiotic association with Film industry. there are television channels completely making films as their agenda or core content of broadcasting.

Demassification: like wise how we studies the concept of market segmentation in Integrated Marketing Communication, the concept of demassification is broadly discussed in the context of online media too. to identify specialized market segments. What target is different from Cybersansar is devoted to show-bizz industry while online khabar publish textual-audio-visual content of different themes. In online media such demassification occurs. likewise youtube being bought by google marks the different kind of ownership in online media.

Scope of Online media?: Online media might have many functions as of that regular and traditional mass media like information, surveillance, linkage, advertisement, transmission of values etc. but the unique one is the existence of Virtual community; networking among vast array of people. In case of radio there are listeners club, in case of newspaper there are readers club but then there the physical presence is mandatory or it is needed. On other side this virtual world can be seen as the analogy of Shankaracharya’s interpretative “mithya” world. The virtual world is there but it doesn’t demand physical existence.

Benedict Anderson is the write who coined imagined community who has explained nationalism, sports fandom etc. We have virtual version of our own Nepal. In google earth, one can locate and tag their own home address and form their won virtual world.

Netigen is counterpart of network like citizen of country.

Online media has exerted influence on different domain.

Social : and Second (for widowed or divorced person).

Cultural: transmission of values of certain culture


Political :

Education: online university; tele-medicine; tele-marketing. We can conduct online classs.

e-commerce, e-banking, virtual tour are examples of benefits of internet.

Finally Nirmala sir made Devyani and Usha tell the anecdotal story of “ dudh pokhari banauda pani pokhari”

Online literacy program will promote the pertinent use of Internet, so in order tot make effective use of Online for the betterment of the national and society, online literacy program should be conducted. Once when all the people have access to Internet then there is no guarantee that the access to internet will turn out to be positive. So in such case Online literacy program play the significant role.  Internet should be used Not only for visiting pornographic class, not for chat and games or entertainment but also research, promoting peace and development, education and awareness program etc. Online media has Social, cultural , economic, political significance too.


One Response

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  1. Rajan Kathet said, on July 24, 2011 at 11:21 am

    Jachh ko belaa bhaye ni darho kaam lagyo hai solta je hos!! 🙂

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